ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN - The importance of children’s play

The importance of children’s play

Brick by brick, six-year-old Alice is building a magical kingdom. Imagining fairy-tale turrets and fire-breathing dragons, wicked witches and gallant heroes, she’s creating an enchanting world. Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and so it will have important

Thumbnail

ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN -

The importance of children’s play

Brick by brick, six-year-old Alice is building a magical kingdom. Imagining fairy-tale turrets and fire-breathing dragons, wicked witches and gallant heroes, she’s creating an enchanting world. Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and so it will have important repercussions in her adult life. Đoạn 1

Từng viên gạch bên cạnh từng viên gạch, Alice sáu tuổi đang xây dựng một thế giới ma thuật. Bằng việc tưởng tượng ra những pháo đài thần tiên và những con rồng phun ra lửa, những mụ phù thủy độc ác và những anh hùng hào hiệp, bé gái đang tạo ra một thế giới đầy mê hoặc. Mặc dù cô bé không nhận thức được nhưng sự tưởng tượng này đang giúp cô bé bước đầu tạo dựng khả năng sáng tạo và nó có ảnh hưởng quan trọng trong cuộc sống sau này.

Minutes later, Alice has abandoned the kingdom in favour of playing schools with her younger brother. When she bosses him around as his ‘teacher’, she’s practising how to regulate her emotions through pretence. Later on, when they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning about the need to follow rules and take turns with a partner. Đoạn 2

Vài phút sau, Alice đã bỏ mặc thế giới đó để chơi trò chơi trường học với em trai của mình. Khi cô bé chỉ huy em trai của mình như là cô giáo của em ấy, cô bé đang tập cách kiểm soát cảm xúc thông qua sự giả vờ. Lúc sau, khi chúng đã chán trò này và ngồi xuống với trò chơi cờ, cô bé học được sự cần thiết phải tuân thủ theo các luật chơi và chơi theo lượt với bạn chơi.

‘Play in all its rich variety is one of the highest achievements of the human species,’ says Dr David Whitebread from the Faculty of Education at the University of Cambridge, UK. ‘It underpins how we develop as intellectual, problem-solving adults and is crucial to our success as a highly adaptable species.’ Đoạn 3

Dr David Whitebread thuộc khoa giáo Dục của Đại Học Cambridge, nước Anh nói rằng:” Vui chơi dưới mọi hình thức đều là một trong những thành tựu tối cao nhất của loài người”. “ Nó làm cơ sở để phát triển trí tuệ và khả năng giải quyết vấn đề của người trưởng thành, và nó cũng khá quan trọng trong thành công của chúng ta với tư cách là một loài có khả năng thích nghi cao”

Recognising the importance of play is not new: over two millennia ago, the Greek philosopher Plato extolled its virtues as a means of developing skills for adult life, and ideas about play-based learning have been developing since the 19th century. Đoạn 4

Việc nhận ra tầm quan trọng của việc chơi không phải là mới mẻ: hơn 2 thiên niên kỷ trước, triết gia người Hy Lạp đã ca ngợi những ưu điểm của việc chơi như là một cách phát triển kỹ năng cho cuộc sống trưởng thành sau này, và những ý tưởng về việc học dựa trên việc chơi đã phát triển từ thế kỷ thứ 19.


But we live in changing times, and Whitebread is mindful of a worldwide decline in play, pointing out that over half the people in the world now live in cities. ‘The opportunities for free play, which I experienced almost every day of my childhood, are becoming increasingly scarce,’ he says. Outdoor play is curtailed by perceptions of risk to do with traffic, as well as parents’ increased wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime, and by the emphasis on ‘earlier is better’ which is leading to greater competition in academic learning and schools. Đoạn 5

 


1. Mua bộ đề gần 400 bài ielts reading - Dịch và giải chi tiết Chỉ 199k bao gồm toàn bộ đề trong bộ Cambridge ( từ bộ 1 -18) và nhiều đề thi thực tế ( xem danh sách 400 đề ielts reading tại đây). Xem bài mẫu tại đây, Bài mẫu 1, bài mẫu 2, bài mẫu 3. Giải đề bao gồm phần dịch bài đọc, dịch phần câu hỏi, giải thích chi tiết.

2. Để mua bộ đề Vui lòng điền thông tin theo form tại đây và thanh toán theo thông tin CK trong form. 

3. Đặc biệt chỉ cần hoàn thành buổi học thử miễn phí khóa học Ielts Speaking online 1 kèm 1, 100 bạn đầu tiên sẽ được tặng bộ đề 400k bài Ielts reading và bộ đề Ielts Listening bộ Cam từ 10-18 gồm bài dịch và giải chi tiết, giải thích từ vựng khó ( thời hạn sử dụng trong vòng 2 tháng). Xem thông tin khóa học Ielts Speaking online 1 kèm 1 và đăng ký học thử tại đây.


 


International bodies like the United Nations and the European Union have begun to develop policies concerned with children’s right to play, and to consider implications for leisure facilities and educational programmes. But what they often lack is the evidence to base policies on. Đoạn 6



‘The type of play we are interested in is child-initiated, spontaneous and unpredictable – but, as soon as you ask a five-year-old “to play”, then you as the researcher have intervened,’ explains Dr Sara Baker. ‘And we want to know what the long-term impact of play is. It’s a real challenge.’ Đoạn 7


Dr Jenny Gibson agrees, pointing out that although some of the steps in the puzzle of how and why play is important have been looked at, there is very little data on the impact it has on the child’s later life. Đoạn 8


Now, thanks to the university’s new Centre for Research on Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL), Whitebread, Baker, Gibson and a team of researchers hope to provide evidence on the role played by play in how a child develops. Đoạn 9

‘A strong possibility is that play supports the early development of children’s self control,’ explains Baker. ‘This is our ability to develop awareness of our own thinking processes – it influences how effectively we go about undertaking challenging activities.’ Đoạn 10



In a study carried out by Baker with toddlers and young pre-schoolers, she found that children with greater self-control solved problems more quickly when exploring an unfamiliar set-up requiring scientific reasoning. ‘This sort of evidence makes us think that giving children the chance to play will make them more successful problemsolvers in the long run.’ Đoạn 11



If playful experiences do facilitate this aspect of development, say the researchers, it could be extremely significant for educational practices, because the ability to self regulate has been shown to be a key predictor of academic performance. Đoạn 12


Gibson adds: ‘Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. In my previous research, I investigated how observing children at play can give us important clues about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.’ Đoạn 13



Whitebread’s recent research has involved developing a play-based approach to supporting children’s writing. ‘Many primary school children find writing difficult, but we showed in a previous study that a playful stimulus was far more effective than an instructional one.’ Children wrote longer and better-structured stories when they first played with dolls representing characters in the story. In the latest study, children first created their story with Lego *, with similar results. ‘Many teachers commented that they had always previously had children saying they didn’t know what to write about. With the Lego building, however, not a single child said this through the whole year of the project.’ Đoạn 14


Whitebread, who directs PEDAL, trained as a primary school teacher in the early 1970s, when, as he describes, ‘the teaching of young children was largely a quiet backwater, untroubled by any serious intellectual debate or controversy.’ Now, the landscape is very different, with hotly debated topics such as school starting age. Đoạn 15



‘Somehow the importance of play has been lost in recent decades. It’s regarded as something trivial, or even as something negative that contrasts with “work”. Let’s not lose sight of its benefits, and the fundamental contributions it makes to human achievements in the arts, sciences and technology. Let’s make sure children have a rich diet of play experiences.’ Đoạn 16


__________________________________
* Lego: coloured plastic building blocks and other pieces that can be joined together

 

Questions 1-8:

 

Complete the notes below

 

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer:

 

Write your answers in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

 

Children's play:

Uses of children’s play

·     building a ‘magical kingdom’ may help develop 1 ....................
·     board games involve 2 .................... and turn-taking

Recent changes affecting children’s play

·     populations of 3 .................... have grown  
·     opportunities for free play are limited due to:

   - fear of 4 ....................
   - fear of 5 ....................
   - increased 6 .................... in schools

International policies on children’s play:

·     it is difficult to find 7 .................... to support new policies
·     research needs to study the impact of play on the rest of the child’s 8 ....................

 

Questions 9-13:
Do the following statements agree with the information given on the reading passage?

In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE    if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE   if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN   if there is no information on this


9.  Children with good self-control are known to be likely to do well at school later on.
10.  The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical problems.
11.  Playing with dolls was found to benefit girls’ writing more than boys’ writing.
12.  Children had problems thinking up ideas when they first created the story with Lego.
13.  People nowadays regard children’s play as less significant than they did in the past.

 

GIẢI THÍCH CHI TIẾT ĐỀ THI IELTS READING The importance of children’s play

 

 

 

Questions 1-8:

Complete the notes below

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer:

Write your answers in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

 

Children's play:

Việc chơi của trẻ em

 

Uses of children’s play

Cách dùng trò chơi của trẻ em

· building a ‘magical kingdom’ may help develop 1 .....creativity.......

Xây dựng một vương quốc ma thuật giúp phát triển

Giải thích: đoạn 1

Although she isn’t aware of it, this fantasy is helping her take her first steps towards her capacity for creativity and so it will have important repercussions in her adult life.

............................................................................................................................................................

 

· board games involve 2 ....rules....... and turn-taking.

Các trò chơi có tấm bảng ( như chơi cờ) liên quan đến luật lệ và đổi lượt chơi

Giải thích: đoạn 2

Later on, when they tire of this and settle down with a board game, she’s learning about the need to follow rules and take turns with a partner.

 

............................................................................................................................................................

Recent changes affecting children’s play.

Những thay đổi gần đây ảnh hưởng đến việc chơi của trẻ em

 

· populations of 3 ....cities...... have grown .

Dân số ở các thành phố tăng lên

· opportunities for free play are limited due to:

các cơ hội tự do vui chơi bị giới hạn vì

 

   - fear of 4 ........traffic............

   - fear of 5 ......crime........

   - increased 6 .....competition....... in schools

Giải thích: đoạn 5

But we live in changing times, and Whitebread is mindful of a worldwide decline in play, pointing out that over half the people in the world now live in cities. “The opportunities for free play, which I experienced almost every day of my childhood, are becoming increasingly scarce,” he says. Outdoor play is curtailed by perceptions of risk to do with traffic, as well as parents’increased wish to protect their children from being the victims of crime, and by the emphasis on “earlier is better” which is leading to greater competition in academic learning and schools.

 

Questions 9-13:

Do the following statements agree with the information given on the reading passage?

In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE   if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN   if there is no information on this

 

 

9.T  Children with good self-control are known to be likely to do well at school later on.

Trẻ em có sự tự kiểm soát tốt được biết là có khả năng học tốt ở trường sau này.

Giải thích: đoạn 12

 ​​If playful experiences do facilitate this aspect of development, say the researchers, it could be extremely significant for educational practices, because the ability to self-regulate has been shown to be a key predictor of academic performance.

 

10.T  The way a child plays may provide information about possible medical problems.

Cách mà một đứa trẻ chơi sẽ cung cấp thông tin về các vấn đề y học có thể xảy ra.

Giải thích: đoạn 13, possible medical problems = the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism

Gibson adds: ‘Playful behaviour is also an important indicator of healthy social and emotional development. In my previous research, I investigated how observing children at play can give us important clues about their well-being and can even be useful in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.’

 

 

 

Answer:
1. creativity
2. rules
3. cities
4 & 5. traffic, crime [In either order]
6. competition
7. evidence
8. life
9. TRUE
10. TRUE
11. NOT GIVEN
12. FALSE
13. TRUE

 

BÀI VIẾT LIÊN QUAN

KẾT NỐI VỚI CHÚNG TÔI

DMCA.com Protection Status