ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN - Changing Our Understanding of Health

Changing Our Understanding of Health

A
The concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. These meanings of health have also changed over time. This change is no more evident than in Western society today, when notions of health and health promotion are being challenged

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DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ GIẢI THÍCH ĐÁP ÁN:

Changing Our Understanding of Health

 

 

A
The concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. These meanings of health have also changed over time. This change is no more evident than in Western society today, when notions of health and health promotion are being challenged and expanded in new ways.

Khái niệm về sức khỏe có ý nghĩa khác nhau đối với những người và các nhóm khác nhau. Những ý nghĩa của sức khỏe cũng đã thay đổi theo thời gian. Sự thay đổi này không thể rõ hơn trong xã hội phương Tây ngày nay, khi các quan niệm về sức khỏe và nâng cao sức khỏe đang bị thách thức và mở rộng theo những cách mới.

B
For much of recent Western history, health has been viewed in the physical sense only. That is, good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body, while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. According to this view, creating health for people means providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. During this period, there was an emphasis on providing clean water, improved sanitation and housing.

Trong phần lớn lịch sử phương Tây gần đây, sức khỏe chỉ được xem xét theo nghĩa thể chất. Nghĩa là, sức khỏe tốt có liên quan đến hoạt động cơ học suôn sẻ của cơ thể, trong khi sức khỏe kém được cho là do bộ máy này bị hỏng. Sức khỏe theo nghĩa này đã được định nghĩa là không có bệnh tật hoặc ốm yếu và được nhìn nhận theo thuật ngữ y tế. Theo quan điểm này, tạo ra sức khỏe cho con người có nghĩa là cung cấp dịch vụ chăm sóc y tế để điều trị hoặc ngăn ngừa bệnh tật và ốm đau. Trong giai đoạn này, người ta chú trọng đến việc cung cấp nước sạch, cải thiện điều kiện vệ sinh và nhà ở.

C
In the late 1940s the World Health Organisation challenged this physically and medically oriented view of health. They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.

Vào cuối những năm 1940, Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới đã không thừa nhận quan điểm về sức khỏe theo định hướng thể chất và y tế này. Họ tuyên bố rằng "sức khỏe là một trạng thái hoàn toàn thoải mái về thể chất, tinh thần và xã hội và không chỉ đơn thuần là không có bệnh tật" (WHO, 1946). Sức khỏe và con người được nhìn nhận một cách toàn diện hơn (tâm trí/cơ thể/tinh thần) chứ không chỉ ở khía cạnh thể chất.

D
The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase the risk of diseases, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care, but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), people experiencing poverty, unemployment, underemployment or little control over the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach. This was largely because both the healthy lifestyles approach and the medical approach to health largely ignored the social and environmental conditions affecting the health of people.

 


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E
During 1980s and 1990s there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. The broad socio-ecological view of health was endorsed at the first International Conference of Health Promotion held in 1986, Ottawa, Canada, where people from 38 countries agreed and declared that:

The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, a viable income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic requirements. (WHO, 1986) .

 

It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. Therefore, the creation of health must include addressing issues such as poverty, pollution, urbanisation, natural resource depletion, social alienation and poor working conditions. The social, economic and environmental contexts which contribute to the creation of health do not operate separately or independently of each other. Rather, they are interacting and interdependent, and it is the complex interrelationships between them which determine the conditions that promote health. A broad socio-ecological view of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social, economic and environmental focus.

  

F

At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today. In exploring the scope of health promotion it states that:

 

Good health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it. (WHO, 1986) .
 

The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of 'enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health' (WHO, 1986).
 

Questions 1-5
The reading passage has six paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-F from the list of headings below.

Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

 

Example        Answer

Paragraph A       v

1  Paragraph B

2 Paragraph C

3 Paragraph D

4 Paragraph E

5 Paragraph F

     
List of Headings

i Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion

ii Holistic approach to health

iii The primary importance of environmental factors

iv Healthy lifestyles approach to health

v Changes in concepts of health in Western society

vi Prevention of diseases and illness

vii Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

viii Definition of health in medical terms

ix Socio-ecological view of health

Questions 19-22

Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage, answer the following questions
Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

19. In which year did the World Health Organization define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being?
20. Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health?
21. Name the three broad areas which relate to people's health, according to the socio-ecological view of health.
22. During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health?

Questions 23-27

Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 8?
In boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet write
         YES             if the statement agrees with the information.
         NO               if the statement contradicts the information.
         NOT GIVEN  if there is no information on this in the passage.

23 Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.
24 The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs.
25 The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health.
26 The principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s.
27  In recent years a number of additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter.

 

ĐÁP ÁN, GIẢI CHI TIẾT và DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING:

Changing Our Understanding of Health

Questions 1-5
The reading passage has six paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below

Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-F from the list of headings below.

Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

 

Example        Answer

Paragraph A       v

1  Paragraph B/ viii Definition of health in medical terms

Giải thích:

Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms.

 

2 Paragraph C/ ii Holistic approach to health

Giải thích:

They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.

 

3 Paragraph D/ iv Healthy lifestyles approach to health

Giải thích:

The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual.

 

Questions 19-22

Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage, answer the following questions
Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

19. In which year did the World Health Organization define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being?
Tổ chức Y tế Thế giới định nghĩa sức khỏe về tinh thần, thể chất và xã hội vào năm nào?

Giải thích: đoạn C, 1946

They stated that 'health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease' (WHO, 1946). Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.


20. Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health?
Những thành viên nào trong xã hội được hưởng lợi nhiều nhất từ lối sống lành mạnh đối với sức khỏe?

Giải thích: đoạn D, the wealthy

While this individualistic healthy lifestyle approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society)

 

 

 

Questions 23-27

Do the following statements agree with the information in Reading Passage 8?
In boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet write
         YES             if the statement agrees with the information.
         NO               if the statement contradicts the information.
         NOT GIVEN  if there is no information on this in the passage.

23.NG Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.
Các bác sĩ đã góp phần cải thiện mức sống ở xã hội phương Tây.


24.T The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs.
Cách tiếp cận sức khỏe trong những năm 1970 bao gồm việc giới thiệu các chương trình nâng cao nhận thức về sức khỏe.

Giải thích: đoạn D

The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase the risk of diseases, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care, but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. 

 

 

Answer:
14. viii
15. ii
16. iv
17. ix
18. vii
19. 1946
20. (the) wealthy (members) (of) (society)
21. social, economic, environmental
22. (the) 1970s
23. NOT GIVEN
24. YES
25. NO
26. NO
27. NOT GIVEN

 

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