ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN - THE ROCKET - FROM EAST TO WEST

The Rocket - From East To West

A The concept of the rocket, or rather the mechanism behind the idea of propelling an object into the air, has been around for well over two thousand years. However, it wasn’t until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and so

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DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ GIẢI THÍCH ĐÁP ÁN:

THE ROCKET - FROM EAST TO WEST

 

A The concept of the rocket, or rather the mechanism behind the idea of propelling an object into the air, has been around for well over two thousand years. However, it wasn’t until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and so represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought, that rocket technology was able to develop. Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to the exploration of the universe.

Khái niệm về tên lửa, hay đúng hơn là cơ chế đằng sau ý tưởng đẩy một vật thể lên không trung, đã tồn tại hơn hai nghìn năm. Tuy nhiên, phải đến khi phát hiện ra nguyên lý phản ứng, vốn là chìa khóa của du hành vũ trụ và do đó, là một trong những cột mốc quan trọng trong lịch sử tư duy khoa học, thì công nghệ tên lửa mới có thể phát triển. Nó không chỉ giải quyết một vấn đề đã khiến con người tò mò trong nhiều thời đại, mà quan trọng hơn, nó đã mở ra cánh cửa khám phá vũ trụ theo đúng nghĩa đen.

B An intellectual breakthrough, brilliant though it may be, does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice. Despite the fact that rockets had been used sporadically for several hundred years, they remained a relatively minor artefact of civilization until the twentieth century. Prodigious efforts, accelerated during two world wars, were required before the technology of primitive rocketry could be translated into the reality of sophisticated astronauts. It is strange that the rocket was generally ignored by writers of fiction to transport their heroes to mysterious realms beyond the Earth, even though it had been commonly used in fireworks displays in China since the thirteenth century. The reason is that nobody associated the reaction principle with the idea of traveling through space to a neighbouring world.

Một bước đột phá trí tuệ, dù xuất sắc đến đâu, cũng không tự động chắc chắn rằng quá trình chuyển đổi từ lý thuyết sang thực tiễn sẽ thực hiện được. Mặc dù thực tế là tên lửa đã được sử dụng lác đác trong vài trăm năm, nhưng chúng vẫn là một tạo tác tương đối nhỏ của nền văn minh cho đến thế kỷ XX. Những nỗ lực phi thường, được đẩy mạnh trong hai cuộc chiến tranh thế giới, là cần thiết trước khi công nghệ tên lửa thô sơ có thể được chuyển thành thực tại của các phi hành gia tinh thạo. Thật kỳ lạ là các nhà văn viết tiểu thuyết thường không dùng đến tên lửa để đưa các anh hùng của họ đến những cõi bí ẩn bên ngoài Trái đất, mặc dù nó đã được sử dụng phổ biến trong các màn bắn pháo hoa ở Trung Quốc từ thế kỷ thứ mười ba. Lý do là không ai liên kết nguyên tắc phản ứng với ý tưởng du hành xuyên không gian đến một thế giới lân cận.

 

C A simple analogy can help us to understand how a rocket operates. It is much like a machine gun mounted on the rear of a boat. In reaction to the backward discharge of bullets, the gun, and hence the boat, move forwards. A rocket motor’s ‘bullets’ are minute, high-speed particles produced by burning propellants in a suitable chamber. The reaction to the ejection of these small particles causes the rocket to move forwards. There is evidence that the reaction principle was applied practically well before the rocket was invented. In his Noctes Atticae or Greek Nights, Aulus Gellius describes ‘the pigeon of Archytas’, an invention dating back to about 360 BC. Cylindrical in shape, made of wood, and hanging from string, it was moved to and fro by steam blowing out from small exhaust ports at either end. The reaction to the discharging steam provided the bird with motive power.

Một sự so sánh đơn giản có thể giúp chúng ta hiểu cách hoạt động của tên lửa. Nó giống như một khẩu súng máy được gắn ở đuôi thuyền. Để phản ứng với việc xả đạn về phía sau, khẩu súng và do đó con thuyền di chuyển về phía trước. 'Viên đạn' của động cơ tên lửa là các hạt nhỏ, tốc độ cao được tạo ra bằng cách đốt cháy chất đẩy trong một buồng thích hợp. Phản ứng phóng ra các hạt nhỏ này làm cho tên lửa di chuyển về phía trước. Có bằng chứng cho thấy nguyên lý phản ứng đã được áp dụng thực tiễn rất tốt trước khi tên lửa được phát minh. Trong Noctes Atticae or Greek Nights của mình, Aulus Gellius đã mô tả 'con chim bồ câu của Archytas', một phát minh có từ khoảng năm 360 trước Công nguyên. Nó có dạng hình trụ, làm bằng gỗ và được treo bằng dây, nó được di chuyển qua lại bằng hơi nước thổi ra từ các cổng xả nhỏ ở hai đầu. Phản ứng với hơi nước thải ra đã cung cấp động lực cho con chim.

D The invention of rockets is linked inextricably with the invention of ‘black powder’. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with its discovery. They base their belief on studies of Chinese writings or on the notebooks of early Europeans who settled in or made long visits to China to study its history and civilisation. It is probable that, sometime in the tenth century, black powder was first compounded from its basic ingredients of saltpetre, charcoal and sulphur. But this does not mean that it was immediately used to propel rockets. By the thirteenth century, powder-propelled fire arrows had become rather common. The Chinese relied on this type of technological development to produce incendiary projectiles of many sorts, explosive grenades and possibly cannons to repel their enemies. One such weapon was the ‘basket of fire’ or, as directly translated from Chinese, the ‘arrows like flying leopards’. The 0.7 metre-long arrows, each with a long tube of gunpowder attached near the point of each arrow, could be fired from a long, octagonal-shaped basket at the same time and had a range of 400 paces. Another weapon was the ‘arrow as a flying sabre’, which could be fired from crossbows. The rocket, placed in a similar position to other rocket-propelled arrows, was designed to increase the range. A small iron weight was attached to the 1.5m bamboo shaft, just below the feathers, to increase the arrow’s stability by moving the centre of gravity to a position below the rocket. At a similar time, the Arabs had developed the ‘egg which moves and burns’. This ‘egg’ was apparently full of gunpowder and stabilised by a 1.5m tail. It was fired using two rockets attached to either side of this tail.

 

 


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E It was not until the eighteenth century that Europe became seriously interested in the possibilities of using the rocket itself as a weapon of war and not just to propel other weapons. Prior to this, rockets were used only in pyrotechnic displays. The incentive for the more aggressive use of rockets came not from within the European continent but from far-away India, whose leaders had built up a corps of rocketeers and used rockets successfully against the British in the late eighteenth century. The Indian rockets used against the British were described by a British Captain serving in India as ‘an iron envelope about 200 millimetres long and 40 millimetres in diameter with sharp points at the top and a 3m-long bamboo guiding stick’. In the early nineteenth century, the British began to experiment with incendiary barrage rockets. The British rocket differed from the Indian version in that it was completely encased in a stout, iron cylinder, terminating in a conical head, measuring one metre in diameter and having a stick almost five metres long and constructed in such a way that it could be firmly attached to the body of the rocket. The Americans developed a rocket, complete with its own launcher, to use against the Mexicans in the mid-nineteenth century. A long cylindrical tube was propped up by two sticks and fastened to the top of the launcher, thereby allowing the rockets to be inserted and lit from the other end. However, the results were sometimes not that impressive as the behaviour of the rockets in flight was less than predictable. Since then, there have been huge developments in rocket technology, often with devastating results in the form of war. Nevertheless, the modern-day space programs owe their success to the humble beginnings of those in previous centuries who developed the foundations of the reaction principle. Who knows what it will be like in the future?

 

 

 

Questions 1-4
Reading passage 11 has six paragraphs labelled A-F.
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

 

List of Headings

 i   How the reaction principle works
ii   The impact of the reaction principle
iii  Writer's theories of the reaction principle
iv  Undeveloped for centuries
 v  The first rockets
vi  The first use of steam
vii  Rockets for military use
viii Developments of fire
ix   What's next?


Example      Paragraph A          Answer ii

1.  Paragraph B
2.  Paragraph C
3.  Paragraph D
4.  Paragraph E

Questions 5 and 6

Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 5 and 6 on your answer sheet.

5 The greatest outcome of the discovery of the reaction principle was that
    A         rockets could be propelled into the air.
    B         space travel became a reality.
    C        a major problem had been solved.
    D        bigger rockets were able to be built.
 
6 According to the text, the greatest progress in rocket technology was made
    A       from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries.
    B       from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries.
    C       from the early nineteenth to the late nineteenth century.
    D       from the late nineteenth century to the present day.

Questions 7-10
From the information in the text, indicate who FIRST invented or used the items in the list below.
Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

 

Example                                                                          Answer
rockets for displays                                                           A

7 black powder
8 rocket-propelled arrows for fighting
9 rockets as war weapons
10 the rocket launcher

FIRST invented or used by
A  the Chinese
B  the Indians
C  the British
D  the Arabs
E  the Americans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions 11-14
Look at the drawings of different projectiles below, A-H, and the names of types of projectiles given
in the passage, Questions 11-14. Match each name with one drawing.
Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.

Example                                                      Answer
The Greek ‘pigeon of Archytas’                      C

11     The Chinese ‘basket of fire’
12     The Arab ‘egg which moves and burns’
13     The Indian rocket
14     The British barrage rocket

 

 IELTS Academic reading sample 11a

 IELTS reading sample 11-picture2

 

ĐÁP ÁN, GIẢI CHI TIẾT và DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING:

THE ROCKET - FROM EAST TO WEST



Questions 1-4
Reading passage 11 has six paragraphs labelled A-F.
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-E from the list of headings below.
Write the appropriate numbers (i-ix) in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

 

 

1.  Paragraph B/ iv

Giải thích:

An intellectual breakthrough, brilliant though it may be, does not automatically ensure that the transition is made from theory to practice. Despite the fact that rockets had been used sporadically for several hundred years, they remained a relatively minor artefact of civilization until the twentieth century.


2.  Paragraph C/ i

Giải thích:

A simple analogy can help us to understand how a rocket operates. It is much like a machine gun mounted on the rear of a boat. In reaction to the backward discharge of bullets, the gun, and hence the boat, move forwards

 


Questions 5 and 6
Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 5 and 6 on your answer sheet.

5. The greatest outcome of the discovery of the reaction principle was that
Kết quả lớn nhất của việc khám phá ra nguyên tắc phản ứng là

 

    A         rockets could be propelled into the air.
tên lửa có thể được phóng lên không trung.

 

    B         space travel became a reality.
du hành vũ trụ đã trở thành hiện thực.

Giải thích: đoạn A

Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to the exploration of the universe.

 

    C        a major problem had been solved.
một vấn đề lớn đã được giải quyết.

    D        bigger rockets were able to be built.
tên lửa lớn hơn đã có thể được chế tạo.
 
6. According to the text, the greatest progress in rocket technology was made

Theo văn bản, tiến bộ lớn nhất trong công nghệ tên lửa đã được thực hiện

    A       from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries.
từ thế kỉ X đến thế kỉ XIII.

    B       from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries.
từ thế kỷ XVII đến thế kỷ XIX.

    C       from the early nineteenth to the late nineteenth century.
từ đầu thế kỷ XIX đến cuối thế kỷ XIX.

 

    D       from the late nineteenth century to the present day.
từ cuối thế kỷ XIX đến nay.

Giải thích: đoạn E

The Americans developed a rocket, complete with its own launcher, to use against the Mexicans in the mid-nineteenth century. A long cylindrical tube was propped up by two sticks and fastened to the top of the launcher, thereby allowing the rockets to be inserted and lit from the other end. However, the results were sometimes not that impressive as the behaviour of the rockets in flight was less than predictable. Since then, there have been huge developments in rocket technology, often with devastating results in the forum of war. Nevertheless, the modern day space programs owe their success to the humble beginnings of those in previous centuries who developed the foundations of the reaction principle.

 

Questions 7-10
From the information in the text, indicate who FIRST invented or used the items in the list below.

 

Từ thông tin trong văn bản, hãy cho biết ai là người ĐẦU TIÊN đã phát minh ra hoặc sử dụng các vật phẩm trong danh sách bên dưới.


Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

Example                                                                          Answer
rockets for displays                                                           A

7.A black powder/ bột đen

Giải thích: đoạn D

The invention of rockets is linked inextricably with the invention of ‘black powder’. Most historians of technology credit the Chinese with its discovery.


8.A rocket-propelled arrows for fighting/ mũi tên phóng tên lửa để chiến đấu

Giải thích: đoạn D

By the thirteenth century, powder propelled fire arrows had become rather common. The Chinese relied on this type of technological development to produce incendiary projectiles of many sorts, explosive grenades and possibly cannons to repel their enemies.


  

 

Answer:
 1.  iv    2.  i    3.  v    4.  vii    5.  B    6.  D    7.  A    8.  A   9.  B   10. E   11. B   12. E   13. F   14. G

 

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