ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN -Why Pagodas Don’t Fall Down?

Why Pagodas Don’t Fall Down?

In a land swept by typhoons and shaken by earthquakes, how has Japan's tallest and seemingly flimsiest old buildings - 500 or so wooden pagodas-remained standing for centuries? Records show that only two have collapsed during the past 1400 years

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DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ GIẢI THÍCH ĐÁP ÁN:

Why Pagodas Don’t Fall Down?

 

 

In a land swept by typhoons and shaken by earthquakes, how has Japan's tallest and seemingly flimsiest old buildings - 500 or so wooden pagodas-remained standing for centuries? Records show that only two have collapsed during the past 1400 years. Those that have disappeared were destroyed by fire as a result of lightning or civil war. The disastrous Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6,400 people, toppled elevated highways, flattened office blocks and devastated the port area of Kobe. Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Toji temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed, though it levelled a number of buildings in the neighbourhood. ĐOẠN 1

Tại một vùng đất bị những cơn bão càn quét và rung chuyển bởi động đất, làm thế nào mà những tòa nhà cổ có vẻ mỏng manh nhất và cao nhất của Nhật Bản - khoảng 500 ngôi chùa bằng gỗ vẫn đứng vững qua hàng thế kỷ? Các ghi chép cho thấy rằng chỉ hai ngôi chùa bị sụp đổ trong 1400 năm qua. Những cái đã biến mất bị tàn phá bởi lửa do sét đánh hoặc chiến tranh. Trận động đất thảm khốc Hanshin vào năm 1995 đã giết chết 6400 người, lật đổ đường cao tốc trên cao, san bằng các khối văn phòng và tàn phá khu vực cảng Kobe. Tuy nhiên, nó đã chừa lại ngôi chùa 5 tầng tráng lệ tại đền Toji gần Kyoto vẫn bình an vô sự, dù cho nó đã san bằng một số tòa nhà ở khu vực lân cận.

 

Japanese scholars have been mystified for ages about why these tall, slender buildings are so stable. It was only thirty years ago that the building industry felt confident enough to erect office blocks of steel and reinforced concrete that had more than a dozen floors. With its special shock absorbers to dampen the effect of sudden sideways movements from an earthquake, the thirty-six-storey Kasumigaseki building in central Tokyo-Japan's first skyscraper–was considered a masterpiece of modern engineering when it was built in 1968.ĐOẠN 2

Các học giả người Nhật đã hoang mang trong thời gian dài tại sao những tòa nhà mỏng manh và cao lại quá vững chắc như vậy. Chỉ 30 năm trước, ngành công nghiệp xây dựng mới cảm thấy đủ tự tin dựng lên các khối văn phòng từ bê tông cốt thép và thép hơn chục tầng. Với bộ giảm chấn đặc biệt để giảm tác động chuyển ngang đột ngột từ động đất, tòa nhà 36 tầng Kasumigaseki  ở trung tâm Tokyo - tòa nhà chọc trời đầu tiên của Nhật được xem như là một kiệt tác của kỹ thuật hiện đại vào 1968 lúc nó được xây dựng.

 

Yet in 826, with only pegs and wedges to keep his wooden structure upright, the master builder Kobodaishi had no hesitation in sending his majestic Toji pagoda soaring fifty-five meters into the sky-nearly half as high as the Kasumigaseki skyscraper built some eleven centuries later. Clearly, Japanese carpenters of the day knew a few tricks about allowing a building to sway and settle itself rather than fight nature's forces. But what sort of tricks? ĐOẠN 3

Tuy nhiên vào năm 826, chỉ với những chiếc chốt và nêm để giữ cho công trình kiến trúc gỗ của mình thẳng đứng, nhà xây dựng bậc thầy Kobodaishi không ngần ngại đưa ngôi chùa Toji hùng vĩ của mình bay vút 55m vào bầu trời cao gần một nửa so với tòa nhà chọc trời Kasumigaseki được xây dựng 11 thế kỷ sau đó. Rõ ràng những người thợ mộc Nhật Bản ngày đó đã biết một vài thủ thuật về việc cho phép một tòa nhà lắc lư và tự ổn định thay vì chống lại lực của tự nhiên. Nhưng những loại thủ thuật đó là gì?

 

The multi-storey pagoda came to Japan from China in the sixth century. As in China, they were first introduced with Buddhism and were attached to important temples. The Chinese built their pagodas in brick or stone, with inner staircases, and used them in later centuries mainly as watchtowers. When the pagoda reached Japan, however, its architecture was freely adapted to local conditions they were built less high, typically five rather than nine storeys, made mainly of wood and the staircase was dispensed with because the Japanese pagoda did not have any practical use but became more of an art object. Because of the typhoons that batter Japan in the summer, Japanese builders learned to extend the eaves of buildings further beyond the walls. This prevents rainwater gushing down the walls. Pagodas in China and Korea have nothing like the overhang that is found on pagodas in Japan. ĐOẠN 4

 

 


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The roof of a Japanese temple building can be made to overhang the sides of the structure by fifty percent or more of the building's overall width. For the same reason, the builders of Japanese pagodas seem to have further increased their weight by choosing to cover these extended eaves not with the porcelain tiles of many Chinese pagodas but with much heavier earthenware tiles. ĐOẠN 5

 

But this does not totally explain the great resilience of Japanese pagodas. Is the answer that, like a tall pine tree, the Japanese pagoda with its massive trunk-like central pillar known as shinbashira simply flexes and sways during a typhoon or earthquake. For centuries, many thought so. But the answer is not so simple because the startling thing is that the shinbashira actually carries no load at all. In fact, in some pagoda designs, it does not even rest on the ground, but is suspended from the top of the pagoda hanging loosely down through the middle of the building. The weight of the building is supported entirely by twelve outer and four inner columns. ĐOẠN 6

 

And what is the role of the shinbashira, the central pillar? The best way to understand the shinbashira's role is to watch a video made by Shuzo Ishida, a structural engineer at Kyoto Institute of Technology. Mr Ishida, known to his students as 'Professor Pagoda' because of his passion to understand the pagoda, has built a series of models and tested them on a 'shaketable' in his laboratory. In short, the shinbashira was acting like an enormous stationary pendulum. The ancient craftsmen, apparently without the assistance of very advanced mathematics, seemed to grasp the principles that were, more than a thousand years later, applied in the construction of Japan's first skyscraper. What those early craftsmen had found by trial and error was that under pressure a pagoda's loose stack of floors could be made to slither to and fro independent of one another. Viewed from the side, the pagoda seemed to be doing a snake dance with each consecutive floor moving in the opposite direction to its neighbors above and below. The shinbashira, running up through a hole in the centre of the building, constrained individual storeys from moving too far because, after moving a certain distance, they banged into it, transmitting energy away along the column. ĐOẠN 7

 

Another strange feature of the Japanese pagoda is that, because the building tapers, with each successive floor plan being smaller than the one below, none of the vertical pillars that carry the weight of the building is connected to its corresponding pillar above. In other words, a five storey pagoda contains not even one pillar that travels right up through the building to carry the structural loads from the top to the bottom. More surprising is the fact that the individual storeys of a Japanese pagoda, unlike their counterparts elsewhere, are not actually connected to each other. They are simply stacked one on top of another like a pile of hats. Interestingly, such a design would not be permitted under current Japanese building regulations. ĐOẠN 8

 

And the extra-wide eaves? Think of them as a tight rope walker balancing pole. The bigger the mass at each end of the pole, the easier it is for the tightrope walker to maintain his or her balance. The same holds true for a pagoda. 'With the eaves extending out on all sides like balancing poles,' says Mr. Ishida, 'the building responds to even the most powerful jolt of an earthquake with a graceful swaying, never an abrupt shaking. Here again, Japanese master builders of a thousand years ago anticipated concepts of modern structural engineering. ĐOẠN 9


 

Questions 1-4
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 143?
In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
FALSE if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if there it impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

1 Only two Japanese pagodas have collapsed in 1400 years.
2 The Hanshin earthquake of 1995 destroyed the pagoda at the Toji temple.
3 The other buildings near the Toji pagoda had been built in the last 30 years.
4 The builders of pagodas knew how to absorb some of the power produced by severe weather conditions.

Questions 5-10
Classify the following as typical of

A. both Chinese and Japanese pagodas
B. only Chinese pagodas
C. only Japanese pagodas

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.

5 easy interior access to top
6 tiles on eaves
7 use as observation post
8 size of eaves up to half the width of the building
9 original religious purpose
10 floors fitting loosely over each other

Questions 11-13
Choose the correct letter, AB or C.
Write the correct letter in boxes11-13 on your answer sheet.

11 In a Japanese pagoda, the shinbashira
     A bears the full weight of the building.
     B bends under pressure like a tree.
     C connects the floors with the foundations.
     D stops the floors moving too far.

12 Shuzo Ishida performs experiments in order to
     A improve skyscraper design.
     B be able to build new pagodas.
     C learn about the dynamics of pagodas.
     D understand ancient mathematics.

13 The storeys of a Japanese pagoda are
     A linked only by wood.
     B fastened only to the central pillar.
     C fitted loosely on top of each other.
     D joined by special weights.

 

ĐÁP ÁN, GIẢI CHI TIẾT và DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING:

Why Pagodas Don’t Fall Down?

 

 

Questions 1-4
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 143?
In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
FALSE if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if there it impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

 

1T Only two Japanese pagodas have collapsed in 1400 years.

Chỉ hai ngôi chùa Nhật Bản sụp đổ trong 1400 năm

Giải thích: Đoạn 1

Records show that only two have collapsed during the past 1400 years


2F The Hanshin earthquake of 1995 destroyed the pagoda at the Toji temple.

Trận động đất Hanshin 1995 đã tàn phá ngôi chùa tại đền Toji

Giải thích: Đoạn 1

The disastrous Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6,400 people, toppled elevated highways, flattened office blocks and devastated the port area of Kobe. Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Toji temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed, though it levelled a number of buildings in the neighbourhood.

 

 

Questions 5-10
Classify the following as typical of

A. both Chinese and Japanese pagodas
B. only Chinese pagodas
C. only Japanese pagodas

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.

5B easy interior access to top/ tiếp cận lên đỉnh dễ dàng từ bên trong

Giải thích: Đoạn 4

The Chinese built their pagodas in brick or stone, with inner staircases,

When the pagoda reached Japan, however, its architecture was freely adapted to local conditions they were built less high, typically five rather than nine storeys, made mainly of wood and the staircase was dispensed with because the Japanese pagoda did not have any practical use but became more of an art object.


6A tiles on eaves/ gạch ngói trên mái hiên

Giải thích: Đoạn 5

For the same reason, the builders of Japanese pagodas seem to have further increased their weight by choosing to cover these extended eaves not with the porcelain tiles of many Chinese pagodas but with much heavier earthenware tiles.

 

 


1. Mua bộ đề gần 400 bài ietls reading - Dịch và giải chi tiết Chỉ 149k (thời hạn 1 năm) bao gồm toàn bộ đề trong bộ Cambridge ( từ bộ 1 -18) và nhiều đề thi thực tế ( xem danh sách 400 đề ielts reading tại đây). Xem bài mẫu tại đây, Bài mẫu 1, bài mẫu 2, bài mẫu 3. Giải đề bao gồm phần dịch bài đọc, dịch phần câu hỏi, giải thích chi tiết.

2. Để mua bộ đề Vui lòng điền thông tin theo form tại đây và thanh toán theo thông tin CK trong form. 

3. Sau khi nhận được thanh toán Chúng tôi sẽ kích hoạt truy cập bộ đề qua email trong vòng 30ph. Vui lòng cung cấp địa chỉ email chính xác.

 


 

Questions 11-13
Choose the correct letter, AB or C.
Write the correct letter in boxes11-13 on your answer sheet.

11 In a Japanese pagoda, the shinbashira

Trong một ngôi chùa Nhật Bản, shinbashira
     A bears the full weight of the building.

chịu toàn bộ trọng lượng tòa nhà
     B bends under pressure like a tree.

uốn cong do chịu tác động của sức ép như một cái cây
     C connects the floors with the foundations.

kết nối với các tầng với nền móng


     D stops the floors moving too far.

ngăn các tầng di chuyển quá xa

Giải thích: Đoạn 7

The shinbashira, running up through a hole in the centre of the building, constrained individual storeys from moving too far because, after moving a certain distance, they banged into it, transmitting energy away along the column.

 

 

 

 

 

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Answer:
1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. NOT GIVEN
4. TRUE
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. C
11. D
12. C
13. C

 

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