ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN - Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

"I am from a large, poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast. Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes."

Thumbnail

DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ GIẢI THÍCH ĐÁP ÁN:

Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

 

"I am from a large, poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast. Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes." ĐOẠN 1
Doreen Soko

" Tôi đến từ một gia đình lớn, nghèo và trong nhiều năm chúng tôi đã không ăn sáng. Kể từ khi tôi tham gia chương trình quốc tế Street Kids tôi, tôi đã có thể mua cho gia đình tôi đường và bánh cho bữa ăn sáng. Tôi cũng mua cho chính tôi quần áo và giày đã qua sử dụng khá tươm tất.

"We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we’ve been doing. I’ve learnt cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for re-investment. Now business is a part of our lives. As well, we didn’t know each other before – now we’ve made new friends." ĐOẠN 2
Fan Kaoma

" chúng tôi đã có kinh nghiệm kinh doanh. Hiện nay tôi tự tin mở rộng những gì tôi đang làm. Tôi đã học cách quản lý tiền mặt, và cách giữ tiền vì vậy chúng tôi tiết kiệm để tái đầu tư. Hiện nay kinh doanh là một phần đời sống của tôi. Ngoài ra chúng tôi cũng không biết nhau từ trước - giờ đây chúng tôi đã kết bạn mới"


Participants in the Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative Program, Zambia

Những người tham gia Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative Program, Zambia

 

 

Introduction

Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children living on the street or in difficult circumstances. ĐOẠN 3

Mặc dù các chương trình đào tạo doanh nghiệp quy mô nhỏ và các chương trình tín dụng đã nên phổ biến hơn trên toàn thế giới, tương đối ít sự chú ý dành cho nhu cầu hướng những cơ hội như vậy đến những người trẻ. Thậm chí ít sự chú ý dành cho trẻ em sống trên đường phố hoặc có hoàn cảnh khó khăn.

Over the past nine years, Street Kids International (S.K.I.) has been working with partner organisations in Africa, Latin America and India to support the economic lives of street children. The purpose of this paper is to share some of the lessons S.K.I. and our partners have learned. ĐOẠN 4

Trong chín năm qua, Street Kids International (S.K.I.) đã hợp tác với các tổ chức đối tác ở Châu Phi, Châu Mỹ Latinh và Ấn Độ để hỗ trợ đời sống kinh tế của những trẻ em đường phố. Mục đích của bài báo này là để chia sẻ một vài bài học S.K.I và các đối tác đã học.

 

Background

Typically, children do not end up on the streets due to a single cause, but to a combination of factors: a dearth of adequately funded schools, the demand for income at home, family breakdown and violence. The street may be attractive to children as a place to find adventurous play and money. However, it is also a place where some children are exposed, with little or no protection, to exploitative employment, urban crime, and abuse. ĐOẠN 5


1. Mua bộ đề gần 400 bài ietls reading - Dịch và giải chi tiết Chỉ 149k (thời hạn 1 năm) bao gồm toàn bộ đề trong bộ Cambridge ( từ bộ 1 -18) và nhiều đề thi thực tế ( xem danh sách 400 đề ielts reading tại đây). Xem bài mẫu tại đây, Bài mẫu 1, bài mẫu 2, bài mẫu 3. Giải đề bao gồm phần dịch bài đọc, dịch phần câu hỏi, giải thích chi tiết.

2. Để mua bộ đề Vui lòng điền thông tin theo form tại đây và thanh toán theo thông tin CK trong form. 

3. Sau khi nhận được thanh toán Chúng tôi sẽ kích hoạt truy cập bộ đề qua email trong vòng 30ph. Vui lòng cung cấp địa chỉ email chính xác.


Children who work on the streets are generally involved in unskilled, labour-intensive tasks which require long hours, such as shining shoes, carrying goods, guarding or washing cars, and informal tracing. Some may also earn income through begging, or through theft and illegal activities. At the same time, there are street children who take pride in supporting themselves and their families and who often enjoy their work. Many children may choose entrepreneurship because it allows them a degree of independence, is less exploitative than many forms of paid employment, and is flexible enough to allow them to participate in other activities such as education and domestic tasks. ĐOẠN 6

 

Street Business Partnerships

S.K.I. has worked with partner organisations in Latin America, Africa and India to develop innovative opportunities for street children to earn income. ĐOẠN 7

 

  •   The S.K.I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in the Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India. ĐOẠN 8

 

  •   Another successful project, The Shoe Shine Collective, was a partnership program with the Y.W.C.A. in the Dominican Republic. In this project, participants were lent money to purchase shoe shine boxes. They were also given a sale place to store their equipment and facilities for individual savings plans. ĐOẠN 9

 

  •   The Youth Skills Enterprise initiative in Zambia is a joint program with the Red Cross Society and the Y.W.C.A. Street youths are supported to start their own small business through business training, life skills training and access to credit. ĐOẠN 10

 

 

Lessons learned

The following lessons have emerged from the programs that S.K.I. and partner organisations have created. ĐOẠN 11

 

  •  Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organisation’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship building will have already been established. ĐOẠN 12

 

  •  The involvement of the participants has been essential to the development of relevant programs. When children have had a major role in determining procedures, they are more likely to abide by and enforce them. ĐOẠN 13

 

 

  •  It is critical for all loans to be linked to training programs that include the development of basic business and life skills. ĐOẠN 14

 

 

  • There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program, where such relationships exist. Home visits allow staff the opportunity to know where the participants live, and to understand more about each individual’s situation. ĐOẠN 15

 

  •  Small loans are provided initially for purchasing fixed assets such as bicycles, shoe shine kits and basic building materials for a market stall. As the entrepreneurs gain experience, the enterprises can be gradually expanded and consideration can be given to increasing loan amounts. The loan amounts in S.K.I. programs have generally ranged from US$90-$100. ĐOẠN 16

 

  •  All S.K.I. programs have charged interest on the loans, primarily to get the entrepreneurs used to the concept of paying interest on borrowed money. Generally, the rates have been modest (lower than bank rates) ĐOẠN 17


 

Conclusion

There is a need to recognise the importance of access to credit for impoverished young people seeking to fulfill economic needs. The provision of small loans to support the entrepreneurial dreams and ambitions of youth can be an effective means to help them change their lives. However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical skills as well as productive businesses. ĐOẠN 18

 

 

 

Questions 1-4
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

1.  The quotations in the box at the beginning of the article
    A. exemplify the effects of S.K.I.
    B. explain why S.K.I. was set up.
    C. outline the problems of street children.
    D. highlight the benefits to society of S.K.I.

2.  The main purpose of S.K.I. is to
    A. draw the attention of governments to the problem of street children.
    B. provide schools and social support for street children.

    C. encourage the public to give money to street children.
    D. give business training and loans to street children.

3.  Which of the following is mentioned by the writer as a reason why children end up living on the streets?
    A. unemployment
    B. war
    C. poverty
    D. crime

4. In order to become more independent, street children may
    A. reject paid employment.
    B. leave their families.
    C. set up their own business.
    D. employ other children.

Questions 5-8
Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 161 for each answer.

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 161?

Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.

 

 Country

 Organisations Involved

 Type of Project

 Support Provided

 5 …………  and Bangalore - India

 · S.K.I.

 Courier service

 · Provision of 6 …………

 Dominican Republic

 · S.K.I
 · Y.W.C.A.

 7 ………………

 · Loans
 · Storage facilities
 · Savings plans 

 Zambia

 · S.K.I
 · The Red Cross
 · Y.W.C.A.

 Setting up small  businesses

 · Business training
 · 8 …...…….. training
 · access to credit

Questions 9-12
In boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet write:

YES   if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

9.  Any street child can set up their own small business if given enough support.
10.  In some cases, the families of street children may need financial support from S.K.I.
11.  Only one fixed loan should be given to each child.
12.  The children have to pay back slightly more money than they borrowed.

Questions 13
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answer in box 13 on your answer sheet.

The writers conclude that money should only be lent to street children

  A  as part of a wider program of aid.
  B  for programs that are not too ambitious.
  C   when programs are supported by local businesses.
  D  if the projects planned are realistic and useful.

ĐÁP ÁN, GIẢI CHI TIẾT và DỊCH HOÀN THIỆN ĐỀ THI IELTS READING:

Micro-Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

 

Questions 1-4
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

1.  The quotations in the box at the beginning of the article

Những trích dẫn trong khung bắt đầu bài viết


    A. exemplify the effects of S.K.I./ minh họa cho các kết quả của S.K.I

Giải thích: ĐOẠN 1&2

Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program I have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes

We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we’ve been doing. I’ve learnt cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for re-investment


    B. explain why S.K.I. was set up./ giải thích vì sao S.K.I được thiết lập
    C. outline the problems of street children./ tóm tắt các vấn đề của trẻ em đường phố
    D. highlight the benefits to society of S.K.I./ nhấn mạnh lợi ích đối với xã hội của S.K.I

2.  The main purpose of S.K.I. is to

Mục đích chính của S.K.I là nhằm
    A. draw the attention of governments to the problem of street children.

thu hút sự chú ý của chính phủ đối với vấn đề trẻ em đường phố
    B. provide schools and social support for street children.

cung cấp trường học và hỗ trợ xã hội cho trẻ em đường phố

    C. encourage the public to give money to street children.

khuyến khic1 xã hội tặng tiền cho trẻ em đường phố


    D. give business training and loans to street children.

cung cấp khóa đào tạo kinh doanh và nợ vay cho trẻ em đường phố

Giải thích: đoạn 3

Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children living on the street or in difficult circumstances


 


1. Mua bộ đề gần 400 bài ietls reading - Dịch và giải chi tiết Chỉ 149k (thời hạn 1 năm) bao gồm toàn bộ đề trong bộ Cambridge ( từ bộ 1 -18) và nhiều đề thi thực tế ( xem danh sách 400 đề ielts reading tại đây). Xem bài mẫu tại đây, Bài mẫu 1, bài mẫu 2, bài mẫu 3. Giải đề bao gồm phần dịch bài đọc, dịch phần câu hỏi, giải thích chi tiết.

2. Để mua bộ đề Vui lòng điền thông tin theo form tại đây và thanh toán theo thông tin CK trong form. 

3. Sau khi nhận được thanh toán Chúng tôi sẽ kích hoạt truy cập bộ đề qua email trong vòng 30ph. Vui lòng cung cấp địa chỉ email chính xác.



 

Questions 5-8
Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 161 for each answer.

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 161?

Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.

 

 Country

 Organisations Involved

 Type of Project

 Support Provided

 5 ……Sudan……  and Bangalore - India

 · S.K.I.

 Courier service/ Dịch vụ đưa thư

 · Provision of 6 …bycicle………

cung cấp xe đạp

 Dominican Republic

 · S.K.I
 · Y.W.C.A.

 7 …shoe shine Collective……………

 · Loans
 · Storage facilities
 · Savings plans 

 Zambia

 · S.K.I
 · The Red Cross
 · Y.W.C.A.

 Setting up small  businesses

 · Business training
 · 8 …...
life skills .. training
 · access to credit

 

Giải thích câu 5 & 6: đoạn 8

The S.K.I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in the Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India.

 

 

Questions 9-12
In boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet write:

YES   if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

9.F  Any street child can set up their own small business if given enough support.

Bất kỳ đứa trẻ đường phố nào cũng có thể tự tạo một doanh nghiệp nhỏ nếu được cung cấp hỗ trợ đầy đủ

Giải thích: đoạn 12

Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organisation’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship building will have already been established.


10.NG  In some cases, the families of street children may need financial support from S.K.I.

Trong một vài trường hợp, gia đình của những đứa trẻ đường phố cần hỗ trợ tài chính từ S.K.I

Giải thích: không có thông tin



Questions 13
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answer in box 13 on your answer sheet.

The writers conclude that money should only be lent to street children

Người viết kết luận rằng tiền chỉ nên cho trẻ em đường phố mượn

  A  as part of a wider program of aid.

như một phần của chương trình hỗ trợ mở rộng

Giải thích: đoạn 8

However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical skills as well as productive businesses.


  B  for programs that are not too ambitious.

cho các chương trình không quá tham vọng
  C   when programs are supported by local businesses.

khi các chương trình được doanh nghiệp địa phương hỗ trợ
  D  if the projects planned are realistic and useful.

nếu các dự án được lên kế hoạch có tính thực tế và hữu ích

 

Answer:
1 A
2 D
3 C
4 C
5 Sudan, India (In either Order)
6 bicycle
7 Shoe Shine/ Shoe Shine Collective
8 life skills
9 NO
10 NOT GIVEN
11 NO
12 YES
13 A

 

 

BÀI VIẾT LIÊN QUAN

KẾT NỐI VỚI CHÚNG TÔI

DMCA.com Protection Status