ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN The Step Pyramid of Djoser

The pyramids are the most famous monuments of ancient Egypt and still hold enormous interest for people in the present day. These grand, impressive tributes to the memory of the Egyptian kings have become linked with the country even though other cultures, such as the Chinese and Mayan, also built pyramids

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ĐỀ THI IELTS READING VÀ ĐÁP ÁN The Step Pyramid of Djoser

A

The pyramids are the most famous monuments of ancient Egypt and still hold enormous interest for people in the present day. These grand, impressive tributes to the memory of the Egyptian kings have become linked with the country even though other cultures, such as the Chinese and Mayan, also built pyramids. The evolution of the pyramid form has been written and argued about for centuries. However, there is no question that, as far as Egypt is concerned, it began with one monument to one king designed by one brilliant architect: the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.

B

Djoser was the first king of the Third Dynasty of Egypt and the first to build in stone. Prior to Djoser’s reign, tombs were rectangular monuments made of dried clay brick, which covered underground passages where the deceased person was buried. For reasons which remain unclear, Djoser’s main official, whose name was Imhotep, conceived of building a taller, more impressive tomb for his king by stacking stone slabs on top of one another, progressively making them smaller, to form the shape now known as the Step Pyramid. Djoser is thought to have reigned for 19 years, but some historians and scholars attribute a much longer time for his rule, owing to the number and size of the monuments he built.

C

The Step Pyramid has been thoroughly examined and investigated over the last century, and it is now known that the building process went through many different stages. Historian Marc Van de Mieroop comments on this, writing ‘Much experimentation was involved, which is especially clear in the construction of the pyramid in the center of the complex. It had several plans … before it became the first Step Pyramid in history, piling six levels on top of one another … The weight of the enormous mass was a challenge for the builders, who placed the stones at an inward incline in order to prevent the monument breaking up.’

D

When finally completed, the Step Pyramid rose 62 meters high and was the tallest structure of its time. The complex in which it was built was the size of a city in ancient Egypt and included a temple, courtyards, shrines, and living quarters for the priests. It covered a region of 16 hectares and was surrounded by a wall 10.5 meters high. The wall had 13 false doors cut into it with only one true entrance cut into the south-east corner; the entire wall was then ringed by a trench 750 meters long and 40 meters wide. The false doors and the trench were incorporated into the complex to discourage unwanted visitors. If someone wished to enter, he or she would have needed to know in advance how to find the location of the true opening in the wall. Djoser was so proud of his accomplishment that he broke the tradition of having only his own name on the monument and had Imhotep’s name carved on it as well.

E

The burial chamber of the tomb, where the king’s body was laid to rest, was dug beneath the base of the pyramid, surrounded by a vast maze of long tunnels that had rooms off them to discourage robbers. One of the most mysterious discoveries found inside the pyramid was a large number of stone vessels. Over 40,000 of these vessels, of various forms and shapes, were discovered in storerooms off the pyramid’s underground passages. They are inscribed with the names of rulers from the First and Second Dynasties of Egypt and made from different kinds of stone. There is no agreement among scholars and archaeologists on why the vessels were placed in the tomb of Djoser or what they were supposed to represent. The archaeologist Jean-Philippe Lauer, who excavated most of the pyramid and complex, believes they were originally stored and then give a ‘proper burial’ by Djoser in his pyramid to honor his predecessors. There are other historians, however, who claim the vessels were dumped into the shafts as yet another attempt to prevent grave robbers from getting to the king’s burial chamber.

F

Unfortunately, all of the precautions and intricate design of the underground network did not prevent ancient robbers from finding a way in. Djoser’s grave goods, and even his body, were stolen at some point in the past and all archaeologists found were a small number of his valuables overlooked by the thieves. There was enough left throughout the pyramid and its complex, however, to astonish and amaze the archaeologists who excavated it.

G

Egyptologist Miroslav Verner writes, ‘Few monuments hold a place in human history as significant as that of the Step Pyramid in Saqqara … It can be said without exaggeration that this pyramid complex constitutes a milestone in the evolution of monumental stone architecture in Egypt and in the world as a whole.’ The Step Pyramid was a revolutionary advance in architecture and became the archetype which all the other great pyramid builders of Egypt would follow.

 

 

Questions 14-20

Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i     The areas and artefacts within the pyramid itself

ii     A difficult task for those involved

iii     A king who saved his people

iv     A single certainty among other less definite facts

v     An overview of the external buildings and areas

vi     A pyramid design that others copied

vii     An idea for changing the design of burial structures

viii     An incredible experience despite the few remains

ix     The answers to some unexpected questions

14   Paragraph A

15   Paragraph B

16   Paragraph C

17   Paragraph D

18   Paragraph E

19   Paragraph F

20   Paragraph G

 

 

Questions 21-24

Complete the notes below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 21-24 on your answer sheet.

The Step Pyramid of Djoser

The complex that includes the Step Pyramid and its surroundings is considered to be as big as an Egyptian 21 ………………….. of the past. The area outside the pyramid included accommodation that was occupied by 22 ………………….., along with many other buildings and features.

A wall ran around the outside of the complex and a number of false entrances were built into this. In addition, a long 23 ………………….. encircled the wall. As a result, any visitors who had not been invited were cleverly prevented from entering the pyramid grounds unless they knew the 24 ………………….. of the real entrance.

 

 

Questions 25-26

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Write the correct letters in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following points does the writer make about King Djoser?

A   Initially he had to be persuaded to build in stone rather than clay.

B   There is disagreement concerning the length of his reign.

C   He failed to appreciate Imhotep’s part in the design of the Step Pyramid.

D   A few of his possessions were still in his tomb when archaeologists found it.

E   He criticised the design and construction of other pyramids in Egypt.

Đáp án và giải thích chi tiết

14. IV

15. VII

16. II

17. V

18. I

19. VIII

20. VI

21. City

22. Priests

23. Trench

24. Location

25. & 26. B,D (in either order)

25. & 26. B,D (in either order)

Câu 14. Paragraph A

The evolution of the pyramid form has been written and argued about for centuries. However, there is no question that, as far as Egypt is concerned, it began with one monument to one king designed by one brilliant architect

Đoạn A có nói về việc có rất nhiều sự tranh cãi về sự tiến hóa thay đổi của kim tự tháp trong nhiều thế kỉ, nhưng có một điều không tranh cãi được đó là nó được thiết kế cho một vị vua bởi một kiến trúc sư lỗi lạc

Đáp án: IV -A single certainty among other less definite facts


Câu 15. Paragraph B

 “conceived of building a taller, more impressive tomb for his king by stacking stone slabs on top of one another, progressively making them smaller, to form the shape now known as the Step Pyramid”

B có nói rằng trước đó các lăng mộ hình chữ nhật và làm bạc gạch đất sét, nhưng lăng mộ cho Djoser lại được xây hình kim tự tháp, bằng đá rất khác so với ngày xưa

Đoạn G có khẳng định lại sự đặc biệt của kim tự tháp bậc thang và nó rằng nó trở thành kiểu mẫu cho các nhà xây dựng kim tự tháp khác

Đáp án: vi - Pyramid design that others copied          

Đáp án: vii. An idea for changing the design of burial structures

Câu 16. Paragraph C

“The weight of the enormous mass was a challenge for the builders”

 Đoạn C có nói một chút thông tin về quá trình xây dựng kim tự tháp nhưng sau đó kết luận rằng cân nặng của kim tự tháp thực sự là một thách thức với người xây dựng

Đáp án: ii -A difficult task for those involved

Câu 17. Paragraph D
Gần như toàn bộ đoạn văn Phân tích: Đoạn D bắt đầu với việc mô tả kim tự tháp, cao bao nhiêu, vị trí như thế nào, cấu trúc ra sao ... Sau đó mô tả phần bên ngoài, cửa ra vào, tường

Đáp án: v -An overview of the external buildings and areas

Câu 18. Paragraph E ( Những nội dung liên quan gần như trải đều toàn bộ đoạn văn)

Sau khi đề cập đến bên ngoài lăng mộ ở đoạn 2, đoạn E đề cập đến phần bên trong của lăng mộ như phòng, hàng nghìn bình đá

Đáp án: i -The areas and artefacts within the pyramid itself

Câu 19. Paragraph F

 There was enough left throughout the pyramid and its complex, however, to astonish and amaze the archaeologists who excavated it

 Đoạn văn bắt đầu với việc nhắc đến các đồ trong mộ bị ăn trộm, chỉ còn lại một vài đồ các tên trộm bỏ sót. Tuy nhiên cuối đoạn văn có nói dù còn ít nhưng cũng đủ khiến các nhà khảo cổ học ngạc nhiên

Đáp án: viii -An incredible experience despite the few remains

 Câu 20. Paragraph G

Thông tin liên quan: “... and became the archetype which all the other great pyramid builders of Egypt would follow”
Đoạn G có khẳng định lại sự đặc biệt của kim tự tháp bậc thang và nó rằng nó trở thành kiểu mẫu cho các nhà xây dựng kim tự tháp khác

Đáp án: vi –Apyramid design that others copied

Câu 21. The complex that includes the Step Pyramid and its surroundings is considered to be as big as an Egyptian 21......... of the past.

Vị trí cần điền 1 danh từ số ít, đi với cụm an Egyptian .... tạo thành cụm danh từ

 Đoạn văn nói về cấu trúc của kim tự tháp và không gian bên trong + bên ngoài được đề cập đến ở đoạn D và đoạn E. Thông tin được nhắc đến ở “The complex in which it was built was the size of a city in ancient Egypt and included a temple, courtyards, shrines, and living quarters for the priests”.

Đoạn văn có nói kích thước của khu phức hợp như kích thước của một thành phố thời Hy Lạp cổ đại è Đáp án: city

Câu 22. The area outside the pyramid included accommodation that was occupied by 22 ........, along with many other buildings and features.

Vị trí cần điền là danh từ, cùng với cụm be occupied by .... để tạo thành cụm động từ
Đoạn D câu số 2 có nói... included a temple, courtyards, shrines, and living quarters for the priests
Khu phức hợp lăng mộ rất to, bao gồm đền, sân, đền thờ và khu sinh hoạt cho các vị linh mục, thì khu sinh hoạt ở đây chính bằng nơi sống của các linh mục

Đáp án: priests

Câu 23. A wall ran around the outside of the complex and a number of false entrances were built into this. In addition, a long 23............. encircled the wall.

Vị trí cần điền một danh từ số ít, cùng với cụm a long ... tạo thành cụm danh từ và phù hợp với thông tin encircled the wall
Vẫn ở đoạn D, người đọc tìm thấy thông tin .... the entire wall was then ringed by a trench 750 meters long and 40 meters wide èbức tường được bao quanh bởi một “trench dài tới 750 mét

Đáp án: trench

Câu 24: Any Visitors who had not been invited were cleverly prevented from entering the pyramid grounds unless they knew the 24......... of the real entrance.

Vị trí cần điền là một danh từ, cùng với từ “the ... of the real entrance' để tạo thành 1 cụm

Đoạn D những câu cuối cùng có nói “If someone wished to enter, he or she would have needed to know in advance how to find the location of the true opening in the wall

Vì có rất nhiều cửa giả trên tường nên nếu muốn đi vào trong thì phải biết của thật nằm ở đâu

==>Đáp án: location

Câu  25–26

Lựa chọn A được nhắc đến ở câu đầu tiên đoạn B và được chỉ ra là “the first to build in stone' nhưng không có thông tin nào nói về việc ông ý được thuyết phục để xây bằng đá thay bằng đất sét | Not given

Lựa chọn B được đề cập cuối đoạn B, chỗ Djoser is thought to have reigned for 19 years, but some historians and scholars attribute a much longer time for his rule, owing to the number and size of the monuments he built thì có nói ông trị vì trong 19 năm. nhưng các di tích mà ông xây dựng lại dẫn đến tranh cãi là ông cai trị lâu hơn - Có nhiều tranh luận về thời gian ông cai trị – Lựa chọn B đúng

Lựa chọn C được nhắc đến cuối đoạn D có nói là ông khắc tên của Imhotep trên tường, chứng tỏ ông không hề lờ đi tầm quan trọng của nhóm này = False

Lựa chọn D được nhắc đến ở cuối đoạn F qua thông tin all archaeologists found were a small number of his valuables overlooked by the thieves', chứng tỏ những gì mà các nhà khảo cổ học tìm thấy thì rất ít 0 Lựa chọn D đúng

Lựa chọn E có liên quan đến đoạn G, nhưng đoạn G chỉ nói về tác phẩm của ông được tán dương như thế nào chứ không nói đến việc ông ý có chỉ trích các kim tự tháp khác hay không =D Not given

Đáp án: Câu 25B – Câu 26 D

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