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Questions 21-25

Choose the correct letter, AB or C.

Cities built by the sea

21   Carla and Rob were surprised to learn that coastal cities

A   contain nearly half the world’s population.

B   include most of the world’s largest cities.

C   are growing twice as fast as other cities.


22   According to Rob, building coastal cities near to rivers

A   may bring pollution to the cities.

B   may reduce the land available for agriculture.

C   may mean the countryside is spoiled by industry.


23   What mistake was made when building water drainage channels in Miami in the 1950s?

A   There were not enough for them.

B   They were made of unsuitable materials.

C   They did not allow for the effects of climate change.


24   What do Rob and Carla think that the authorities in Miami should do immediately?

A   take measures to restore ecosystems

B   pay for a new flood prevention system

C   stop disposing of waste materials into the ocean


25   What do they agree should be the priority for international action?

A   greater coordination of activities

B   more sharing of information

C   agreement on shared policies

Questions 26-30

What decision do the students make about each of the following parts of their presentation?

Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 26-30.


A     use visuals

B     keep it short

C     involve other students

D     check the information is accurate

E     provide a handout

F     focus on one example

G     do online research

Parts of the presentation

26   Historical background          ……………..

27   Geographical factors            ……………..

28   Past mistakes                         ……………..

29   Future risks                             ……………..

30   International implications    ……………..



TUTOR:            OK, so what I’d like you to do now is to talk to your partner about your presentations on urban planning. You should have done most of the reading now, so I’d like you to share your ideas, and talk about the structure of your presentation and what you need to do next.

CARLA:            OK Rob. I’m glad we chose quite a specific topic – cities built next to the sea. It made it much easier to find relevant information.

ROB:                Yeah. And cities are growing so quickly – I mean, we know that more than half the world’s population lives in cities now.

CARLA:            Yeah, though that’s all cities, not just ones on the coast. But (Q21most of the biggest cities are actually built by the sea. I’d not realised that before.

ROB:                Nor me. And what’s more, a lot of them are built at places where rivers come out into the sea. But apparently this can be a problem.

CARLA:            Why?

ROB:                Well, as the city expands, agriculture and industry tend to spread further inland along the rivers, and so agriculture moves even further inland up the river. That’s not necessarily a problem, except (Q22it means more and more pollutants are discharged into the rivers.

CARLA:            So these are brought downstream to the cities?

ROB:                Right. Hmm. Did you read that article about Miami, on the east coast of the USA?

CARLA:            No.

ROB:                Well, apparently back in the 1950s they build channels to drain away the water in case of flooding.

CARLA:            Sounds sensible.

ROB:                Yeah, they spent quite a lot of money on them. (Q23But what they didn’t take into account was global warming. So they built the drainage channels too close to sea level, and now sea levels are rising, they’re more or less useless. If there’s a lot of rain, the water can’t run away, there’s nowhere for it to go. The whole design was faulty.

CARLA:            So what are the authorities doing about it now?

ROB:                I don’t know. I did read that they’re aiming to stop disposing of waste into the ocean over the next ten years.

CARLA:            But that won’t help with flood prevention now, will it?

ROB:                No. Really (Q24they just need to find the money for something to replace the drainage channels, in order to protect against flooding now. But in the long term they need to consider the whole ecosystem.

CARLA:            Right. Really, though, coastal cities can’t deal with their problems on their own, can they? I mean, they’ve got to start acting together at an international level instead of just doing their own thing.

ROB:                Absolutely. The thing is, everyone knows what the problems are and environmentalists have a pretty good idea of what we should be doing about them, so (Q25they should be able to work together to some extent. But it’s going to be a long time before countries come to a decision on what principles they’re prepared to abide by.

CARLA:            Yes, if they ever do.


CARLA:            So I think we’ve probably got enough for our presentation. It’s only fifteen minutes.

ROB:                OK. So I suppose we’ll begin with some general historical background about why coastal cities were established. But (Q26we don’t want to spend too long on that, the other students will already know a bit about it. It’s all to do with communications and so on.

CARLA:            Yes. We should mention some geographical factors, things like wetlands and river estuaries and coastal erosion and so on. We could have some maps of different cities with these features marked.

ROB:                On a handout you mean? Or (Q27some slides everyone can see?

CARLA:            Yeah, that’d be better.

ROB:                It’d be good to go into past mistakes in a bit more detail. Did you read that case study of the problems there were in New Orleans with flooding a few years ago?

CARLA:            Yes, (Q28We could use that as the basis for that part of the talk. I don’t think the other students will have read it, but they’ll remember hearing about the flooding at the time.

ROB:                OK. So that’s probably enough background.

CARLA:            So then we’ll go on to talk about what action’s being taken to deal with the problems of coastal cities.

ROB:                OK. What else do we need to talk about? Maybe something on future risks, looking more at the long term, if populations continue to grow.

CARLA:            Yeah. We’ll need to do a bit of work there, I haven’t got much information, have you?

ROB:                No. (Q29We’ll need to look at some websites. Shouldn’t take too long.

CARLA:            OK. And I think we should end by talking about international implications. Maybe (Q30we could ask people in the audience. We’ve got people from quite a lot of different places.

ROB:                That’d be interesting, if we have time, yes. So now shall we …



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21. B

22. A

23. C

24. B

25. A

26. B

27. A

28. F

29. G

30. C



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